Gestational diabetes is a condition in which normal women is recognized with an onset of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. It is metabolic disorder which occurs due to defects in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism during pregnancy. It is characterized by decreased sensitivity of receptors towards insulin that is, resistance and compensatory mechanism resulting in hyperinsulinemia.
One in ten pregnancies are associated with gestational diabetes and it occurs during or after 25th week of pregnancy. Women with certain physiological condition have a high risk of developing gestational diabetes. These conditions are:
- Family history of diabetes
- Personal history of GDM
- Polycystic ovarian disorder
Symptoms of gestational diabetes
Usually, gestational diabetes mellitus does not present any key signs or symptoms. They are recognized during the screening tests for GDM.
But, some women present certain clinical features due to hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar). These symptoms are similar to the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus such as:
- Polyuria (excessive urination)
- Increased thirst
- Dry mouth
Read: symptoms of diabetes
Complications of gestational diabetes
Women with gestational diabetes are associated with high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like stillbirth, neonatal metabolic disturbances and fetal macrosomia. These women are more likely to develop or we can say, these is chance of recurrence of diabetes in the future. These women and their kids tend to become obese in the future.
The women with GDM has an increased risk of requiring C section (caesarian).
Obesity increases chances of insulin resistance and thus causes type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Monitoring of gestational diabetes
Daily monitoring glucose is essential. So SMBG – self monitoring of blood glucose can be adopted.